it, Newcombe says. In a model-based design tool, youd represent this rule with a small diagram, as though drawing the logic out on a whiteboard, made of boxes that represent different stateslike door open, moving, and door closedand lines that define how you can get from one state. The introduction of programming languages like Fortran and C, which resemble English, and tools, known as integrated development environments, or IDEs, that help correct simple mistakes (like Microsoft Words grammar checker but for code obscured, though did little to actually change, this basic alienationthe fact. She became known for her report on the Therac-25, a radiation-therapy machine that killed six patients because of a software error. He hit a button that showed not just where Mario was right now, but where he would be at every moment in the future: a curve of shadow Marios stretching off into the far distance. But few programmers write even a rough sketch of what their programs will do before they start coding.
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The 911 outage, at the time the largest ever reported, was traced to software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado.
The purpose of these scholarships is to provide assistance to women at the formative stages of their careers in these fields.
A single subtle bug could be catastrophic. Then, youd replay the game to see what actually happened. By the time he gave the talk that made his name, the one that Resig and Granger saw in early 2012, Victor had finally landed upon the principle that seemed to thread through all of his work. The electromechanical interlockings that controlled train movements at railroad crossings, for instance, only had so many configurations; a few sheets of paper could describe the whole system, and you could run physical trains against each configuration to see how it would behave. When the audience first saw this in action, they literally gasped. The New York Times, it was the first of many similar cases against Toyota to bring to trial problems with the electronic throttle-control system, and the first time Toyota was found responsible by a jury for an accident involving unintended acceleration.
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